A storage tank for bile is a muscular sack which is a small pear-shaped is known as the gallbladder. Through tiny ducts, the bile is sent to the small intestine and to gallbladder. A liver cell in liver produces the bile.
When meal is eaten, the gallbladder secretes the stored bile in larger quantities. Indigestion of food and fats makes the gallbladder release of cholecystokinin. This hormone relaxes the valve at the end of the sphincter of oddi. Through which intestine receives the bile. It also contracts the gallbladder to squirts the thicken bile to intestine.
This hormone helps to digest the fats. A sac pear shaped lying under the right side of the liver is called gallbladder, it location is behind the 9th costal cartilage. 1-2 liter of bile is secreted the liver cells. Micelles in the bile and sodium is form known as osmotic gradients of bile acids. The driving forces for bile flow are provided by the hepatocytes.
Systematic slimming down and repose of the ampullary sphincter maintain common bile ducts pressure. Pressure accelerates with gallbladder in the fasting state. Therefore, bile normally flows into the gallbladder when it is concentrated some tenfold by resorption of water and electrolytes.
Gallbladder contraction and reduces sphincter pressure and cholecystokinin release from the duodenal mucosa during enjoying meal, causing the bile flows into the duodenum. There is no effect of this activity on the gallbladder; where as vagal activity maintains gallbladder smooth.
The arrangement of hepatocytes forms the biliary tract in the canaliculi, and the intrahepatic bile ducts derived from the left and right hepatic ducts joint.
These ducts join as they come out from the liver to shape the regular hepatic duct that later becomes the cystic duct that is connecting with the common bile duct. Approximate length of common bile duct is five cm long, which had a thin wall, lunmened proximal part and a think walled, narrow lunmended and the choledochal sphincter surrounds the distal part.
Most of the symptoms of gallbladder disease are similar and to know the kind of its diagnosis is important. After a number of test, one can tell the real cause behind the disease. The most common symptoms includes -bloating, indigestion, gastric problem, belching and burping a lot.
Most important is not taking meal on proper time. Intakes of imbalance diet, rich in fat, are the main and clear symptom of it.
Intake of fats that are not really a real fat means they are saturated fats. These symptoms are similar to gallbladder attacks and other general disease. The disease is a constant process of tenderness along with the discomfort.
The pain is usually felt at the right side under the ribs. Back and right shoulder feel the pain. There is a severe upper abdomen pain called biliary colic. Patients report nausea, queasiness, along with vomiting.
Fever is a particular symptom of this disease. It pains usually at night and after intake of a heavy meal especially one with high saturated fats. Deep inhalation the pain gets worse.
The duration of pain is 15 minutes to 1 day. In cholesterol stone, an excessive secretion of cholesterol by the liver is the most important factor in stone formation. Increased cholesterol secretion occurs in the following conditions- Females gender, Obesity, Exogenous estrogen, Increased age, Diabetes with high cholesterol, Pregnancy, Rapid weight loss, fasting, spinal cord injury.
In pigment-stones, following are the risk factors – hemolytic anemia, ilead disease or resection, bile stasis and infection in biliary tact, age above 40, Carcinoma of gallbladder risk factors are age 65-70 years, mostly female have squarmous cell carcinoma.
Gallstones, cholecytitis are also fall in as its risk factor. In other factors are allergies with certain food, heartburn, too much intake of anitiacids, inheritance, drinking alcohol, intake of anti depressants, saturated fats diet. People who take less fiber and are not inhabit of eating fresh fruits n vegetables.
Constipation and chronic diseases such as bowel disease, heart problem can also fall in the risk factors. Asymptomatic gallstones never show symptoms therefore the stones formed incidentally are not treated. Symptomatic gallstones treatment is surgical using minimal access technique.
Gallstones can be also be removed by the process that dissolves and fragment in the gallbladder. Best is to mechanically remove them from the common bile duct. The symptom feature to diagnosis it is pain in the right upper abdomen but also in the back, the right shoulder or intrescapular region.
Differentiation between biliary colic and acute cholecystitis is subject as a problem because of the symptoms and features suggesting cholecystilis includes severe and prolonged pain, fever and lecocytosis. Hypochondrail tenderness is seen in the examination along with the inspiration of gallbladder mass as worse. Fever is present and us the main sign of the problem.
Jaundice occurs in less than 10% of the patients and it is usually due to the common bile duct face the passage of the stones from it. Surgery of gallstones is the essential after the diagnosis for the disease if there is a stone in the common bile duct.
For the surgery of gallbladder, it is important to diagnose the condition quickly. Nearly, it may notices as frequent attacks of pains in biliary and later continue to become jaundice and cause the unexpected weight loss. A gallbladder mass may be plain in the right hypochondrium.
LFTs show cholestasis and gallbladder calcification may be found on x ray. The tumor can be analysis on the base of ultrasonography result and can be staged by CT scan result. The treatment is provided by surgical elimination to stop the extension of the tumors from the gallbladder to the liver.
The life expectancy of these patients is generally short, with death typically occurring within 1 year. Gallbladder disease prevention includes the diet control such no overeating, Diet including high in fiber such as vegetables.
Avoid refined sugar and white flour. Try to use olive oil, avocado, sunflower, as they are Omega 3 oils and other polyunsaturated fats and mono-saturated fats. Avoid saturated fats. Intake polyunsaturated fats more. Include lean meat in the diet.
Intake of water such 6-7 glass per day. Exercise a lot. Maintain a weight. Avoid the food that contains gluten.