Disease known as Non hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is often widely disseminated at presentation. Patients present with lymph node enlargement, which may be associated with systemic upset weight loss, sweats, fever and itching.
Hepatosphenomegaly may be present. An extranodal disease is more common in NHL, with involvement of born marrow, gut, thyroid, lungs, skin, testis, brain and more really born.
An extra-nodal disease is more common in T-cell diseases, whilst bone marrow involvement in more common in low grade (50-60%) than high grade (10%) disease. The same staging system is used for both Hodgkin and Non Hodgkin diseases but NHL is more likely to be staged III or IV at presentation. Compression syndromes may occur; gut obstruction, superior vena caval obstruction and spinal cord compression may all be presenting features.
A chance of getting affected by a disease like cancer is called “Risk Factor.” For every disease, risk factors are different, like for skin cancer a strong sunlight exposure is a risk factor. It is not necessary that a patient with many risk factors actually have the cancer. At time, it gets difficult to guess out of risk factors especially in case of Non-Hodgkin disease.
There are many Non hodgkin lymphoma risk factors such as age:
It occurrence is mostly after age of 60+.
It is common more in men than in women. Few kinds of non-Hodgkin occur only in women. It is more likely in developed countries like America and Europe.
Chemicals exposure is also one of risk factors. It has a high chance to increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma. People who work with chemicals like benzene, herbicides and insecticides have a chance of NHL. Few chemotherapy drugs also have a chance to increase the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Any kind of radiation exposure such as for treatment or survivors of atomic booms have high risk.
Immune system deficiency
People with weak immune system have a high rating of getting in to this disease. Due to drugs used in organ transplant such as of liver, lung, kidney makes the immune system weak, which is of a great chance developing NHL.
Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV virus also affects the immune system, and people who are patients of HIV can easily be infected by non-Hodgkin
It occurs is newborn children. It can be transmitted to children as it is inherited.
Non-Hodgkin have link with autoimmune disease likes rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erthematsous. Due to autoimmune diseases cause the immune system hyperactive, this increase the risk of non Hodgkin disease.
Different kinds of infections risk it in many ways. Viruses affect the DNA and increase the change of NHL. Leukemia and Epstein Barr develops T-cell lymphoma. It can be transmitted through sexual intercourse; contaminated blood and mother feed transmit this infection and can cause NHL. HIV patients are found mostly with this infection and they infect the DNA and cause NHL.
KSHV-Kaposi Sarcoma associated herpes virus
It is also known as AIDS virus, it also affect the immune system. It risk for development of B-cell lymphoma.
It is an ulcer which is a bacteria in stomach, it sometime associate itself with MALT. Risk increase of NHL, when body reacts to these bacteria.
It is also one of the risk factor for a certain kind of lymphoma.
Body weight and diet
Overweight people are on high risk. People who don’t follow the proper diet and eat imbalance diet, have a habit of smoking and drinking alcohol have also risk of NHL.
Doctors investigate patients first by checking body. They examine the swollen lymph nodes present at different parts of body .To investigate following steps should be followed. Keep a report to inform about the past illness and family history of different diseases.
Regular checkup for bone marrow aspiration and trephine. A complete medical test should be done for heart, kidney and liver along with protein level check up. To keep a check anemia and level of white blood cells.
CT scans to be for the chest, abdomen and pelvis. X-ray and PET should be done. Immuno-phenotyping of surface antigens to distinguish T- and B-cell tumors. This may be done on blood, marrow or node material. Immunoglobulin determinations as some lymphonmas are associated with IgG or IgM paraproteins that serves as markers for treatment response. This can be done in three methods; one removal of complete node, second is investigating a small part of node.
Third method done by using needles for removing tissues from the lymph nodes and observe. Measure of uric acid levels as some very aggressive high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are associated with high urate levels, which can precipitate renal failure when treatment started.
HIV testing is must as this may be an appropriate test if risk factors are present. Investigate bone marrow as it makes bloods platelets, red and white blood cells. It makes two kinds of white blood cells-granulocytes and lymphocytes.
Hope now you have idea about major Non hodgkin lymphoma risk factors.